Php tutorial for beginners


In this tutorial, we will realize all the fundamental language structures of PHP.

What is PHP ?

PHP is a server-side scripting language. It tends to be utilized to make dynamic pages and applications that suddenly spike in demand for the Internet, for instance, through an Apache web server.

PHP’s sentence structure is like Perl’s nevertheless it has a lot more underlying capabilities that permit you to compose code quicker and more effectively than different dialects (like C).

It upholds object-situated programming, implying you don’t have to stress over the memory of the executives or announce classes yourself — PHP does it for you! This pursues PHP an exceptionally famous decision among engineers who need a path of least resistance to figuring out how these things work themselves.

What you should already know

  • Basic programming concepts.
  • HTML, CSS and JavaScript.
  • PHP is a server-side scripting language that’s used to create dynamic websites.

PHP syntax

PHP is a server-side scripting language. It’s case-sensitive and can be embedded into HTML, thus it has a wide range of applications.

PHP syntax consists of statements and expressions (formulas). The simplest form of a word is an assignment statement:

This code produces the following result: Hello


PHP variables are used to store data in your program. Variables can be declared using the $ sign, assigned values using =, and used in expressions.

The following example shows how to declare a variable:


$var1 = 10;


The above code creates a new variable called $var1 that contains the value 10. You can now use this variable anywhere within your PHP script. You could also declare multiple variables at once like this:


  • $var1 = 10;
  • $var2 = 20; ?>

PHP echo and print Statements

echo and print statements are used to display information to the screen or other devices. When you use them, it is important that you follow some rules:

  • The first line of your code should be a comment for PHP programmers. It can also be used in scripts that are not executed by PHP, but rather by another program (such as Perl).
  • The second line must start with two slashes (“//”): //echo “Hello World!”; //print(“Hello World”);

These two lines will output “Hello World!” and “Hello World” respectively on their own line in a browser window or terminal window when they are run together as above. If you want something more advanced than this simple example, then please check out our article on conditional tags below!

PHP Data types

PHP data types are the different types of data that can be stored in a variable. They are made up of numbers, strings, arrays and objects.

PHP also has two categories for its data types: scalar and aggregate. Scalar means it can only hold one value at a time (such as 1) or zero values (like 0). Aggregate means it can hold multiple values at once like an array would do but not just one value like an integer would do

PHP Strings

  • PHP Strings are enclosed in single or double quotes.
  • The string is terminated with a semicolon (;)
  • The string can be concatenated using the. operator

PHP Constants

PHP Constants are like variables, but with a fixed value. They are used to store the values of constants.

PHP Constants should not be changed after they have been initialized and can only be used in expressions and statements.

PHP Operators are used to perform a specific task. They are used for comparison and mathematical calculations, etc.

PHP Operators are composed of symbols that have special meanings when combined with the operators given below:

  • + – * / % & | ^ ~ ! ( ) ; : { } [ ] . . . = != > =

Operators can be combined in any order, so you’ll see things like “and”, “or”, “not” being used as operators (much like you would in algebra). The following table lists all of the PHP Operator types:

PHP If...Else...Elseif Statements

There are four different types of if statements:

  • If…Else statement (1st example)
  • If…Elseif Statement (2nd example)
  • Else statement
  • Elseif Statement with elseif statement

PHP Switch Statement

A switch statement is a multi-way branch statement. It’s most useful when you have a variable that can take on several different values. The switch statement selects one of several blocks of code to execute, depending on the value of an expression.

The syntax for using this kind of branching construct looks as follows:

PHP while, do,...while loop statements

The PHP while, do…while and do…while loop statements are used to execute a block of code repeatedly until a condition becomes true.

The syntax for these loops is:

  • The keyword “while” followed by an expression to be evaluated at the start of each execution cycle. The expression must be enclosed in parentheses (). If no condition evaluates to false, then execution will continue with the next statement after the loop body (the curly braces). If an else clause is present or if there is no else block, then control passes back out of the while statement unconditionally; if there are no subsequent statements within curly braces then control passes back out of main() function call as well as any other functions called within main().

PHP For Loop Statements

The for loop is a statement that allows you to iterate over the elements of an array, and perform some action on each element.

The syntax for a for loop is:

for (initialization; condition; increment) { statements }

This format consists of three parts: initialization, condition, and increment. Initialization will be executed once before the loop starts to run, while condition determines whether or not the loop should continue executing or end after this iteration (if true then it will start again). The increment is used to increase by one each time around. The third item in this list can be omitted if you want it to run forever or until something else stops its execution (e.g., PHP statement).

PHP Function Statements

PHP Function Statements

PHP functions are used to create reusable code, and they can be used in two ways: as a standalone function or as part of an array. You can also return values from your functions using the return statement. Functions have several parameters that allow you to customize their behavior and make them more efficient for different situations. For example, if you want to add some text on top of an image before displaying it on a web page, use the add_image_data() function instead of using echo..

In this beginner’s guide, we’ll cover what PHP is and why you should use it. Then we’ll go over the syntax of PHP so that you can write your own scripts!

PHP stands for “PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.” It’s a server-side scripting language that allows web developers to create dynamic websites with ease. It also has many other uses beyond just building websites (like creating desktop applications).


PHP is a strong web prearranging language that has been around for north of 15 years. Making dynamic sites and applications can be utilized. The capacity to compose PHP code makes it an ideal apparatus for beginners who need to figure out how PCs work on the web!:)